Habermas’s theory of how public scientific controversies evolve is based around communicative action. Where individuals within each group, whether they are scientists or public have equal involvement through the communication of shared beliefs, attitudes, values and aspirations. Communicative Action can be part of the formation of the scientific controversy and also its resolution. It is truly democracy in action.

Habermas describes communicative action as “a circular process in which an initiator masters situations through actions for which he is accountable and also as well is a product of the transitions surrounding him, of groups whose cohesion is based on solidarity to which he belongs, and of processes of socialization in which he is reared. In democracy, “communicative action” ideally moves toward an “ideal public sphere” in which “participants harmonize their individual plans of action” and where mutual agreement, based on communication, forms the basis for joint action.”

Jurgen Habermas, Theory of communicative Action, 1981

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